1. What are some of the pitfalls of post-colonial nationalism which Fanon deplores? (1578, nation is passed over for race; that is, people identify with their tribe and race, splitting the nation)
  2. What does he see as the fatal blindspots of the colonial bourgeoisie? Why cannot they successfully imitate the middle classes of their former European masters? (1578-79, not engaged in production, smaller, live in enclaves, unaware of their own country)
  3. What role does he believe they should play? (1579, use its intellectual capital for the people)
  4. This essay was written in 1961. Do you think its views would have been generally accepted by colonials seeking emancipation? Have its predictions often proven accurate since?
  5. According to Fanon, what attitude do native intellectuals take toward the nation’s artisan class? What does he find limiting and self-defeating about this stance? (1579-80, promote local products but fail to make any change in the economic system or to add new industries)
  6. What is wrong with the colonialist/post-colonialist economy of the underdeveloped nation? (continue to export raw products, 1580)
  7. What role does the new indigenous bourgeoisie begin to assume? (that of intermediaries with former masters, 1580)
  8. What are some features of decadence displayed by the new middle classes? (1580) Which aspects of the European bourgeois economic cycle do they fail to emulate? (its bold and inventive aspects)
  9. What objection does Fanon have to the promotion of tourism? In your view, are his comments valid? (sets up its country as the brothel of Europe, 1580-81)
  10. What does he criticize in the behavior of the landed proprietors after colonialism? (1581, demand special privileges, pay near-slave wages)
  11. What in his view should they be doing that they refuse to do? (plan for improvements, modernize, introduce better methods, invest in their own country, 1581)
  12. What is wrong with the display of wealth by the new bourgeoisie? (1582, sign of underdeveloped bourgeoisie)
  13. What are some consequences of the demand by the native middle-classes that all jobs once held by Europeans be turned over to them? (1582-83, sets example of competition, tribalism and racism to those of lower classes)
  14. What are some reasons why the creation of national unity is quite difficult? (1583, deep tribal and ethnic divisions, some regions are wealthier than others; “African unity takes off the mask, and crumbles into regionalism inside the hollow shell of nationality itself.” )
  15. What relationship do religious rivalries have to all of this? (1583-84) How may religious rivalries underpin racism? (separate whiter North from blacker South) What examples does he give of ignorance and hostility toward southern Africans? (1585)
  16. Why cannot the new bourgeoisie assert humanist values? (1585, represent a narrow nationalism and race) By contrast, what in his view is the ideology of a strong bourgeoisie? (democratic ideas which claim to be universally applicable, 1585) Are these ideologies upheld in practice? (1585, no, fundamental racism masked)
  17. What is the attitude of the Western bourgeoisie toward other cultures? (1586, invites them to take Western humanity as their prototype) Do you think this is accurate?
  18. What are some contradictions within this national bourgeoisie class? (1586, caste differences, some of its intellectual members are sincere) What prevents its more honorable members from taking over? (1586, they feel the new bourgeoisie is too powerful)
  19. What attitude toward the bourgeoisie of the homeland is held by members of the native middle-class? (1587, aspire to identify with it)

From “On National Culture”

  1. What is the effect of colonialism on a native culture? (obliterated and negated, or made to declare its own inferiority, 1587)
  2. What are some ways in which its inhabitants respond to their own culture? (the people maintain traditions intact, and the intellectual either assimilates or makes unproductive claims for his culture)
  3. What forms of cultural progress can be made under colonialism? (questioning of oppression, 1588) What is limited about preserving a clandestine culture? (1588, fails to take the offensive and grow)
  4. What happens to the native culture after centuries under colonialism? (withers, 1588) What happens with the movement for national independence? (1588, relative overproduction, natives become producers, movement from poetry and tragedy to novels, short stories and essays)
  5. How does the colonial power respond to this native literature? (1589, tries to assimilate) What changes may be seen in the response of intellectuals? (cease merely to lament, call for change, becomes literature of combat)
  6. How does the audience of the native writer change? (1589, speaks not to oppressors but to his own people)
  7. What are some changes in the roles of traditional storytellers and songs? (used to comment on and celebrate current events and resistance 1589-90) What role does the populace take in these changes? (1590, help in finding new expressions)
  8. What does Fanon believe will be the changed tone of literature under a new social order? (will lose its tone of despair and revolt and become "part of the common lot of the people”)
  9. What will happen to native handicrafts and arts? (enter period of new vigor, 1590) Paradoxically, who opposes such an evolution? (colonists, who prefer traditional styles,1590)
  10. How does Fanon interpret the preference of many white specialists for jazz or blues over be-bop and other later forms? (1593) Can you think of opposing arguments?
  11. What are some social implications of these new art forms, in Fanon’s view? (1591, speak of community, “the assembling of the people”)
  12. Does Fanon believe that national art can be validated under colonialism? What is necessary for a full national culture? (1591-92) What kind of nationalism is necessary under these conditions? (the most elementary, most savage, and the most undifferentiated, 1591)
  13. What then, in his view, “sets culture moving”? (1592, fight for national existence, re-establishmet of the nation)
  14. How does Fanon answer the question, “Is the national struggle the expression of a culture?” (1592, struggle for freedom alters the form and content of culture)
  15. What will be the cultural result of national independence? (an exceptionally rich culture, 1592)
  16. What is the relationship between nationalism and internationalism, in his view? (1593, it is national liberation which leads the nation to play its part on the stage of history)
  17. How is culture ultimately defined? (1593, two-fold emerging of national and international)
  18. To what extent is Fanon a Marxist? How might the introduction of feminist ideas have altered his arguments? Would they have strengthened them?
  19. Are his views on nationalism and internationalism similar to those of Edward Said? Of Homi Bhabha? To what may be ascribed some of the differences?

Page numbers refer to the Norton Anthology of Theory and Criticism, 2001 edition, 1578-93.