Bibliography on Victorian Historicism: General Studies:

Bann, Stephen. The Clothing of Clio: A Study of the Representation of History in Nineteenth Century Britain and France. Cambridge U P, 1984.

Boos, Florence. "Alternative Futures: Victorian Historicism, Past and Present, and A Dream of John Ball." In Boos, ed., Essays in Victorian Medievalism, New York: Garland, 1991.

Bright, Michael. Cities Built to Music: Aesthetic Theories of the Victorian Gothic Revival. Columbus: Ohio State University, 1984.

Buckley, Jerome Hamilton. The Triumph of Time: A Study of the Victorian Concepts of Time, History, Progress, and Decadence. Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1966.

Burrow, J. W. A Liberal Descent: Victorian Historians and the English Past. Cambridge U P, 1981.

Chapman, Raymond. The Sense of the Past in Victorian Literature. London: Croom Helm, 1986. Some discussion of Victorian historical fiction.

Clark, G. Kitson. "A Hundred Years of the Teaching of History at Cambridge: 1873-1973." Historical Journal 16 (1973): 535-553.

Clive, John. "The Use of the Past in Victorian England." Salmagundi 5 (Fall-Winter 1985-86): 48-65. Political uses of history.

Culler, A. D. The Victorian Mirror of History. Yale, 1985.

Dale, Peter Ann. The Victorian Critic and the Idea of History: Carlyle, Arnold, Pater. Cambridge: Harvard U P, 1977.

de Caro, Francis A. "G. L. Gomme: The Victorian Folklorist as Ethnohistorian." Journal of Folklore Institute (Bloomington) 19.2-3 (May-Dec. 1982): 107-117.

Dellheim, Charles. The Face of the Past: the Preservation of the Medieval Inheritance in Victorian England. Cambridge, 1982.

Dilthey, Wilhelm. Selected Works. Vol. 5, "Poetry and Experience." Edited by Rudolf Makkreel and Frithjob Rodi. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.

Dixon, R.W. History of the Church of England. 1878-1902. Anglican viewpoint.

Hough, Graham. Yeats.

Feldman, Durton and Robert Richardson. The Rise of Modern Mythology: 1680-1860. Indiana University Press, 1972.

Fitzsimons, M.A. 'The Past Recaptured' Great Historians and the History of History. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 1983.

Friederich, Werner P. Dante's Fame Abroad 1350-1850. University of North Carolina, 1950.

Fry, Ruth Eckmann. "The Victorian Image of the German Revolution, 1806-1871, As Reflected in the Writings of Carlyle, Matthew Arnold and George Eliot." DA1 44 (1983): 1464A.

Gardiner, Patrick. Theories of History, ed. New York: The Free Press, 1959.

Giroud, Mark. The Return to Camelot. Yale, 1981.

Gooch, George P. History and Historians in the Nineteenth Century. Longmans, 1913. Discusses Hallam and Macaulay; Thirlwall, Grote and Arnold; Carlyle and Froude; the Oxford' School; Gardiner, Lecky, Seeley and Creighton; and Acton and Maitland. Also contains specialized studies, such as "The Jews and the Christian Church," and "Catholic Historiography."

Harte, N. B. One Hundred and Fifty Years of History Teaching at University College, London. London: University College, London, 1982.

The Last Romantics. London: Duckworth, 1949. Pugin, Ruskin, Morris, Jagger, Alison M.

Feminist Politics and Human Nature. Totowa, N.J.: Rowman and Littlefield, 1988. Contains an account of nineteenth-century socialist views of human nature.

Jann, Rosemary. The Art and Science of Victorian History. Columbus: Ohio State U P, 1985. Discusses Arnold, Carlyle, Macaulay, and Froude.

Jann, Rosemary. "Changing Styles in Victorian Military History." Clio: A Journal of Literature, History, and the Philosophy of History 11 (Winter 1982): 157-64. Discusses Carlyle, Thomas Arnold, Thomas Gardiner, and Samuel Rawson.

Jann, Rosemary. "From Amateur to Professional: The Case of the Oxbridge Historians." British Studies 22 (1983): 122-147.

Kegel, Charles Herbert. Medieval-Modern Contrasts Used for a Social Purpose in the Work of William Cobbett, Robet Southey, A. Welby Pugin, Thomas Carlyle, John Ruskin, and William Morris. Diss., University of Michigan, 1955.

Kenyon, John. The History Men. The Historical Profession in England Since the Renaissance. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, and Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, 1983.

Kinnell, Suan K., ed. Historiography: An Annotated Bibliography of Journal Articles, Books, and Dissertations. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-Clio, 1987.

Lowenthal, David. The Past is a Foreign Country. Cambridge, 1985. Attempt at an overview-includes sections on the Renaissance, Victorian Britain, memory, relics, creative anachronism, etc.

McDougall, Hugh. Racial Myth in English History: Trojans, Teutons, and Anglo-Saxons. University Press of New England, 1982.

McGann, Jerome, ed. Historical Studies and Literary Criticism. University of Wisconsin, 1985.

Mitchell, Jerome. Scott, Chaucer, and Medieval Romance: A Study in Sir Walter Scott's Indebtedness to the Literature of the Middle Ages. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1987. Very thorough. Scott's neo-medievalism influenced a whole generation of Victorian writers.

Morris, Kevin L. The Image of the Middle Ages in Romantic and Victorian Literature. London: Croom Helm, 1984. Religious medievalism; anti-medievalism; Kenelm Diby; Catholics and anti-Catholics; medieval eccelstiastical archtitecture; Ruskin and medieval art.

Morton, Patricia M. "Life After Butterfield? John Burrow's A Liberal Descent and the Recent Historiography of Victorian Historians." Historical Reflections 10 (1983): 229-44.

Roberts, Helene E. "Victorian Medievalism: Revival or Masquerade?" Browning Institute Studies 8 (1980): 11-44.

Rosadot, Kurt. "Metaphorical Representations of the French Revolution in Victorian Fiction." Nineteenth-Century Literature 43 (June 1988): 1-23.

Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York, 1978.

St. Louis, Ralph F. "The Middle Ages as a Political and Social Ideal in the Writings of Edmund Burke, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Thomas Carlyle, and John Ruskin." DAI 1973: 3600A-3601A.

Schenker, Mark. "Historical Transcendentalism in the Works of Carlyle, Newman, and Browning." DAI 49 (April 1989): 3036A.

Shaw, Christopher and Malcolm Chase, eds. 'The Imagined Past.' History and Nostalgia. Manchester U P, 1989. Nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Tuman, Myron Chester. "Frederick the Great, Romola, The Ring and The Book and the MidVictorian Crisis in Historicism." DAI 34 (1974): 7251A.

Turner, Frank. The Greek Heritage in Victorian Britain. Yale University Press, 1981.

Some Important English Works of History in the Late-Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century:

Gibbon, Edward. The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire. 1776. 8 volumes.

Turner, Sharon. History of the Ango-Saxons, 1799-1805.

Green, J. R. A Short History of the English People, 1874. A History of the English People, 1880-83. Green was a militant radical and pioneer of populist approach to history. The hero of his history is the English people, and his account includes criticism of English treatment of Ireland, Scotland, India, America, and France. According to Gooch: "His work possesses the living interest of a biography and the dramatic unity of an epic." Green died at age 46.

Gardiner, Samuel. History of the English Revolution, 1863- Moderate view of Royalists and Parliamentarians.

Lecky, W. E. H. History of Rationalism. Reviewed critically by George Eliot. History of England in the Eighteenth Century, 1878-90. Uncovers history of enforced "union" with Ireland, though Lecky opposed Irish independence.

Seeley, John Robert. The Expansion of Englanld, Boston: Roberts, 1883. Source for proponents of British imperial power, though ambivalent about the value of expansion. "Bigness is not necessarily greatness. If by remaining in the second rank of magnitude we can hold the first rank morally and intellectually, let us sacrifice mere material magnitude."

Creighton, Mandell, History of the Papacy. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1882-94. His accounts of the early Renaissance Popes are not as unsympathetic as earlier Protestant histories had been.

Acton, J. E. History of Freedom, 1877. Lecture on the Study of History, 1895. Historian of Catholicism, who believed England had preserved much of the spirit of essential Catholicism in its political institutions.

Maintland, F.W. History of English Law, 1895. Analyzes assumptions and mental processes behind laws. A co-worker was Mary Bateson.

Bateson, Mary. Records of the Borough of Leicester, 1899, and other works of medieval borough history 1901-1904.

Grote, George. History of Greece, 1846-56. Sympathetic to democratic government.

Freeman, Edward Augustus (1823-92). Radical historian of classical Greece, one of the "Oxford School." Also wrote The History of the Norman Conquest (1867), which contains an opening description of Anglo-Saxon England, the settlement of the Norsemen in France, and a study of the Danish kings. According to Gooch, "Worshipping political liberty, he believed that he found it among the Teutonic nations and above all in his own country." Great emphasis on political events; detested autocratic cruelty (in contrast to Froude and Carlyle). Other works included: Growth of the English Constitution (1872), William the Conquerer (1894), Old English History (1895), and Sketches of Travel in Normandy and Main (1897).

Hallam, Henry. Sketch of Europe in the Middle Ages. 1818. Emphasis on government and law. Relatively more ample treatment of France, Italy, and Spain, more meagre treatment of Germany and Eastern Europe.

Hallam, Henry. Constitutional History the Accession of Henry VII to the Death of George II. N. Y.: Sheldon, 1862. One of first works on modern England, from a right-wing Whig view; he believed in the existence of an English "constitution" (that is, the right of Parliament to limit the Crown), but remained distrustful of public opinion.

Palgrave, History of Normandy and England. Gives a "Romanist" view of British law and history.

Kemble, John Mitchell. The Saxons in England, 1849. One of first British "Germanists," believing that "The Englishman has inherited the noblest portion of his being from the Anglo-Saxons. In spite of every influence, we bear a marvellous resemblance to our forefathers." He collected Anglo-Saxon documents, and dominated English historical scholarship for a generation.

Alison, Archibald. The History of Europe, 1833-42. Anti-reformist, Tory view of European revolutions. Of George III: he "never lost power with the thinking few."

Arnold, Thomas, History of Rome, 1838-1841.

Jameson, Anna. Sacred and Legendary Art. 2 vols. 1848.

Prescott, William Henry. The Conquest of Mexico, 1843. The Conquest of Peru, 1847.

Neale, John. The History of the Eastern Church. London: C. F. Hodgson, 1854.

Milman, Henry Hart. History of Latin Christianity, 1854-55. Indifferent to doctorinal controversy, detached view of Catholicism.

Mill, James. History of British India. London: J. Madden, 1858.

Martineau, Harriet. A History of England During the Thirty Years Peace, 1858.

Macaulay, Thomas B. Historical Essays. Famous Whig polemicist; as a historian, according to C. P. Gooch, he is best on English history of seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He attacked Hallam's near-Tory view, and eulogized the character and policy of Cromwell in a way which prepared for Carlyle.

Macaulay, Thomas B. History of England, 1857-1867 Highly favorable view of "Glorious Revolution" and of William II, exaggerated heroization and demonization of character.

Strickland, Agnes. Lives of the Queens of England. 1885.

Froude, J. History of England from the Fall of Wolsey to the Death of Elizabeth. Scribner, 1895. A defense of the English Reformation, admired Henry VIII, disliked Elizabeth I.

Robertson, J. R. The Cryptic Rite, 1888. Also wrote other histories of Freemasonry.

Stubbs, William. Constitutional History of England, 1874- Conservative medieval historian of the "Oxford School."

Wood, Mary Everett, ed. Letters of Royal and Illustrious Ladies of Great Britain from the Commencement of the Twelfth Century to the Close of the Reign of Queen Mary. 3 vols. London, 1846.

Semmel, Bernard. "T. B. Macaulay: The Active and Contemplative Lives." In Richard A. Levine, ed., The Victorian Experience: The Prose Writers. Athens: Ohio U P, 1982. 2246.

A Few Works the Victorians Would Have Read to Understand the Past:

Boccacio, Decameron.

Chaucer, Canterbury Tales, Troilus, Legend of Good Women

Dante, The Divine Comedy, Vita Nuovo

Homer, both epics

Apulieus, The Golden Ass

Voltaire, "Essay on Customs"; one of first exponents of "Kulturgeschicte," general enlightenment conception of "culture." Winkelmann, historian of ancient art as embodiment of Greek mind. William of Malmesbury, Gesta Romanorum Golden Legend

Vergil, Sappho, Aeschylus Apollonius Rhodius, Aergonatutica Hesiod, Works and Days Grimm's Maerchen Heimskringla (trans. 1844) Arabian Nights, trans. 1838. Rubaiyat, adapted Edward Fitzgerald Frazer, James, The Golden Bough

Jakob Burkhardt, Histories of the Renaissance Tyler, John.

Froissart, Jean. Chronicles of England, France, and Spain.

Morgan, Lewis Henry, Ancient Society.

Darwin, Charles. Origin of Species, 1859.

Keightley, Thomas. The Fairy Mythology, Illustrative of the Romance and Superstition of Various Countries. London, 1850.

Baring-Gould, Sabine. Curious Myths of the Middle Ages. Cambridge, 1868. Scott, Walter. "Essay on Chivalry."

Digby, Kenelm. The Broad Stone of Honor. London: C. and J. Rivington, 1823. Guest, Lady Charlotte, ed. Mabinogion. 1812.

Some other compendia and collections included Bishop Percy's Reliques (1765) and Paul Mallet's Northern Antiquities (1770).

Victorian Prose Historicists:

Pugin, Augustus N. W. Contrasts. 1836.

Carlyle, Thomas. The French Revolution, 1837. On Heroes and Hero-Worship, 1841. Past and Present, 1843. Frederick the Great, 6 vols., 1858-65. Essay on Portraits of John Knox, 1875. Early Kings of Norway, 1875.

Ruskin, John. The Seven Lamps of Architecture, 1849. The Stones of Venice, 1851-53 (includes "The Nature of Gothic," set-piece of Victorian medievalism). Selections from Modern Painters, 1843-1860.

Arnold, Matthew. On the Study of Celtic Literature, 1867. Culture and Anarchy, 1869.

Morris, William. Many translations of the sagas and Norse poetry, e.g., Grettirs Saga, Volsunga Saga, multivolume Saga Library (with Magnusson), 1891-95. Several essays on medieval art and labor, such as "Art and Labour," "The Literature of the North," "Early England," in Hopes and Fears, 1882, and Signs of Change, 1888.

Morris, William and E. Belfort Bax. Socialism: Its Growth and Outcome. Swan Sonnenschein: London, 1893. Contains chapters on European economic development from a Marxist perspective.

Pater, Walter. The Renaissance. 1873. Imaginary Portraits, 1887. Marius the Epicurian, 1885.

Engels, Friedrich. The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State. English translation, 1884.

Kropotkin, Peter. An Essay on the Medieval Economy.

Lee, Vernon. The Countess of Albany. 1888. Studies in the Eighteenth Century. 189X.

Yonge, Charlotte. Unknown to History, 18xx.

Rosenberg, John D. Carlyle and the Burden of History. Oxford: Clarendon, 1985.

Symonds, John A. Renaissance Fancies and Studies. The Renaissance in Italy, 1875-86.

Lee, Vernon. Countess of Albany, 1884. Studies of the Eighteenth Century in Italy, 1880, Euphorion, 1884, a study of Renaissance art, Renaissance Fancies and Studies, 1895.

Dobson, Ernest, Eighteenth-Century Vignettes, 1892.

Blatchford, Robert. Merrie England, 1894.

Banham, Joanna and Jennifer Harris, eds. William Morris and the Middle Ages. University of Manchester, 1984.

Some Examples of Victorian Historical Fiction:

Manning, Anne. Mary Poweli, 1849. The Household of Sir Thomas More. 1851, repr. London: Chatto and Windus, 1909.

Newman, John Henry. Callista, 1856.

Reade, Charles. The Cloister and the Hearth, 1861.

deMinto, Walter. The Meditation of Ralph Harddot, 1888.

Bulwer-Lytton, Edward, Harold, 1848, The Caxtons, 1850, The Last Days of Pompeii, The Last of the Barons, Rienzi, The Last of the Tribunes.

Dickens, Charles. Barnaby Rudge, 1841, A Tale of Two Cities, 1859. (Also wrote A Child's History of England, 1851-53.)

Kingsley, Charles, Hypatia, 1853; Westward rio! 1855, Hereward the Wake, 1866.

Thackeray, William M. The Luck of Barry Lyndon, 1844, History of Henry Esmond, 1852.

Thackeray, Anne. Miss Angel, 1875. Emotional life of Angelica Kauffman.

Eliot, George. Romola, 1866.

Lawless, Emily. With Essex in Ireland, 1890. Maelcho. A Sixteenth-Century Narrative, 1894.

Morris, William, The House of the Wolfings, 1889, Roots of the Mountains, 1890, A Dream of John Ball, 1888;

Yonge, Charlotte, The Lances of Lynwood, 1855.

Martineau, Harriet, The Hour and the Man, 1841.

Scott, Walter, Ivanhoe, 1819, The Talisman, 1825, Anne of Geierstein, 1829, Redfauntlet, 1824. The Antiquary, 1816, The Heart of Midlothian, 1816. Also wrote History of Scotland, 1829.

Boos, Florence. "Morris's German Romances as Socialist History," Victorian Studies 27 (Spring 1984): 321-42.

Historicist Poetry and Drama:

Swinburne, Algernon. Atalanta in Calydon, 1865. Many poems from Poems and Ballads, 1866. Tristram of Lyonesse, 1882. Tale of Balen, 1896. Rosamund, Queen of the Lorebards, 1899. Bothwell, 1877.

Tennyson, Alfred. poems from 1832 Poems, including "Lancelot and Guenevere" and "Tithonus,"; from 1842 including "Ulysses" and "Lady Clare"; The Princess, 1847; The Idylls of the King, 1856-69. King Harola. Many others on classical themes--"Lucretius," "Oenone"--and on medieval ones, "Follow the Gleam," and dramas, Harold, 1877, and Becket, 1884.

Browning, Robert. Dramatic Romances and Lyrics, 1845, Men and Women, 1855, Dramatis Personae, 1864, The Ring and the Book, 1868.

Morris, William. The Defence of Guenevere, 1858, The Life and Death of Jason, 1867, Sigurd the Volsung, 1876, The Earthly Paradise, 1868-70, Love Is Enough, 1873.

Browning, Elizabeth Barrett. "Lady Geraldine's Courtship" from the 1844 Poems.

Rossetti, Dante G. Dante and His Circle, 1874, Poems, 1881; includes "The Blessed Damozel," "Sister Helen, .... Dante at Verona, .... The Staff and the Scrip," "The King's Tragedy," "The White Ship, .... Rose Mary," several sonnets on pictures.

Rossetti, Christina. several poems in Goblin Market and Other Poems, 1862, and The Prince's Progress and Other Poems, 1866. Especially note "Monna Innominata," a response to Petrarchan tradition.

Webster, Augusta. Dramatic Studies, 1866, Portraits, 1870, a play set in Caligula's Rome, The Sentence, 1887. Portraits include "Circe," "Medea," "Joan of Arc."

Jones, Henry. The Crusaders, 1893.

Dobell, Sydney. Balder, 1854.

Aytoun, W. H. Lay of the Scottish Cavaliers, 1848.

"Owen Meredith," Clytemnestra, 1855.

Arnold, Matthew. "Empedocles on Etna," "Tristram and Iseult, Mycerinus."

Dixon, R. W. Historical Odes, 1864. Mano.

Scott, Walter. Martalon, 1808, The Lady of the Lake, 1810.

Macaulay, Thomas. Lays of Ancient Rome, 1842.

Symonds, Arthur. Wine, Women, and Song, 1884. Translation of medieval Latin students' songs.

Yeats, William B., ed. Celtic Fairy Tales, 1892, play, Cathleen Ni Houlihan, 1902.

Baker, Lee. "The Diamond Necklace and the Golden Ring: Historical Imagination in Carlyle and Browning." Victorian Poetry 24 (Spring 1986): 31-46.