James O'Connor, "Socialism and Ecology"
- What does O'Connor think are the weaknesses of recent socialism? Environmentalism? Capitalism?
- What does he mean by "red-green" politics?
- What does he think are the advantages of localism? Of a "politics of identity" and culture?
- What does he mean by the claim that "world capitalism itself has created the conditions for an ecological socialist movement"? (166)
- What are some reasons that the vast majority of ecological problems cannot be addressed at the local level? (pp. 167-68)
- What does he see as the flaws of historical Marxism? (p. 169) What should be seen as the relationship between nature and history?
- What is his final prescription for a "green socialism"? What is its political form? Its link between the regional and the international? Do some of these ideas seem familiar from other contexts?
Val Plumwood, "Ecosocial Feminism as a General Theory of Oppression"
- What is Plumwood's country of origin? How does this influence her choice of examples?
- What does Plumwood see as limited about a merely social ecological or deep ecological approach? What are potential limitations to a radical feminist approach? What does she believe are common elements of these approaches?
- What does she see as potential strengths of an ecofeminist approach? (209, 210) According to Plumwood, why is a feminist approach valuable for understanding other forms of oppression, such as imperialism? (211)
- What does she mean by "the network of oppression"? (211ff) How can one avoid equating different forms of oppression within this "network"? (215)
- What is the value of cooperation for choosing ecological strategies? (216) If given a choice, how should one decide which of several objectives to seek?
- What does she see as good aspects of the present situation? (216)
- What does she see as necessary revisions to an older radical tradition? (217)
Freya Matthews, "Ecofeminism and Deep Ecology"
- What is Matthews country of origin? What does she see as basic and somewhat contradictory insights of deep ecology and ecofeminism?
- What does she see as some logical inconsistencies with the alleged deep ecological claim that we must leave nature alone? That our morality must be derived from nature?
- What does she mean by "the identification dilemma"? (237) Why does she see deep ecology as partial?
- What metaphors or set of assumptions does ecofeminism bring to the problem, in her view?
- What form of corrective do these two lines of thought have to offer each other?
- What final hope may this blended viewpoint offer to potentially despairing environmentalists? (244)