Chapter 1

What popular conceptions of ethics does Singer attempt to put to rest? (that it consists of simple moralisms, that it chiefly concerns sex, that it is dependent on religion, that it fails to apply to life)

What does he believe about the argument that ethics are subjective? (problems arise when one claims that ethics are entirely dependent on a society’s mores, or alternately, that each individual can decide for him/herself)

What does he argue are the reasons why we should apply ethical reasoning to our assertions of values?

By what criteria can we say that someone’s behavior accords with ethical values? (person must believe that what they are doing is right; justification cannot be based merely on self-interest)

What are some grounds for deciding if something is ethical that have been proposed? (perspective of Impartial Observer, Kantian view that we should only approve of what we would wish applied to all, Smart’s view that all count equally, Rawls’s view that we should wish for what those would choose who didn’t know who would benefit and who would lose by it)

What is Singer’s own view? What does he mean by a broadly defined utilitarianism? (should seek what best furthers the interests of all those affected)

What complications are suggested by his example of the person who wonders whether to share all his fruits?

What are some other considerations which Singer notes should receive attention? (human rights, justice, sanctity of life)

Chapter 5

Why does Singer consider it important to decide whether a non-human creature can be a person? What definitions of personhood does he put forward? (have sense of self, can remember and anticipate)

What arguments can be given for the personhood of the animals which he describes? What animals or beings does this exclude, according to him?

What arguments does he consider about the claim that it's necessary to kill animals in order to raise others? (argument for replaceability of animals not valid--we have no obligation to create every possible form of life; uses extreme cases such as eliminating all humans so that more animals can survive)

Might there be other arguments for not killing these others? (effects on their families and co-animals; brutal conditions; effects on environment) What does Singer himself believe? (animals should not be killed except in special circumstances)